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100+ iScience References

The purpose of this list is for us to provide annotations as a great way to learn about a range of topics in the context of our latest publication. We are making this available with links to free downloads and/or abstracts as an excellent starting point to learn more about soleus metabolism.

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Aadland, E., and Hostmark, A.T. (2008). Very light physical activity after a meal blunts the rise in blood glucose and insulin. Open Nutr J 2, 94–99.


Akerstrom, T.C.A., Birk, J.B., Klein, D.K., Erikstrup, C., Plomgaard, P., Pedersen, B.K., and Wojtaszewski, J.F.P. (2006). Oral glucose ingestion attenuates exercise-induced activation of 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase in human skeletal muscle. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 342, 949–955.


Barreira, T. V., Hamilton, M.T., Craft, L.L., Gapstur, S.M., Siddique, J., and Zderic, T.W. (2016). Intra-individual and inter-individual variability in daily sitting time and MVPA. J Sci Med Sport 19, 476–481.


Bergman, B.C., Butterfield, G.E., Wolfel, E.E., Lopaschuk, G.D., Casazza, G.A., Horning, M.A., and Brooks, G.A. (1999). Muscle net glucose uptake and glucose kinetics after endurance training in men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 277, 81–92.


Bey, L., and Hamilton, M.T. (2003). Suppression of skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase activity during physical inactivity: A molecular reason to maintain daily low-intensity activity. J Physiol 551, 673–682.


Bey, L., Akunuri, N., Zhao, P., Hoffman, E.P., Hamilton, D.G., and Hamilton, M.T. (2003). Patterns of global gene expression in rat skeletal muscle during unloading and low-intensity ambulatory activity. Physiol Genomics 13, 157–167.


Brouns, F., Bjorck, I., Frayn, K.N., Gibbs, A.L., Lang, V., Slama, G., and Wolever, T.M.S. (2005). Glycaemic index methodology. Nutr Res Rev 18, 145–171.


Buysschaert, M., Medina, J.L., Bergman, M., Shah, A., and Lonier, J. (2015). Prediabetes and associated disorders. Endocrine 48, 371–393.


Cardinale, D.A., Larsen, F.J., Jensen-Urstad, M., Rullman, E., Søndergaard, H., Morales-Alamo, D., Ekblom, B., Calbet, J.A.L., and Boushel, R. (2019). Muscle mass and inspired oxygen influence oxygen extraction at maximal exercise: Role of mitochondrial oxygen affinity. Acta Physiol 225, 1–14.


Cartee, G.D., Arias, E.B., Yu, C.S., and Pataky, M.W. (2016). Novel single skeletal muscle fiber analysis reveals a fiber type-selective effect of acute exercise on glucose uptake. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 311, E818–E824.


Chen, K.Y., Brychta, R.J., Sater, Z.A., Cassimatis, T.M., Cero, C., Fletcher, L.A., Israni, N.S., Johnson, J.W., Lea, H.J., Linderman, J.D., et al. (2020). Opportunities and challenges in the therapeutic activation of human energy expenditure and thermogenesis to manage obesity. J Biol Chem 295, 1926–1942.


Chondronikola, M., Volpi, E., Børsheim, E., Porter, C., Annamalai, P., Enerbäck, S., Lidell, M.E., Saraf, M.K., Labbe, S.M., Hurren, N.M., et al. (2014). Brown adipose tissue improves whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in humans. Diabetes 63, 4089–4099.


Colberg, S.R., Sigal, R.J., Yardley, J.E., Riddell, M.C., Dunstan, D.W., Dempsey, P.C., Horton, E.S., Castorino, K., and Tate, D.F. (2016). Physical activity/exercise and diabetes: A position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 39, 2065–2079.


Craft, L.L., Zderic, T.W., Gapstur, S.M., VanIterson, E.H., Thomas, D.M., Siddique, J., and Hamilton, M.T. (2012). Evidence that women meeting physical activity guidelines do not sit less: An observational inclinometry study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 9, 1–9.

Cresswell, A.G., Löscher, W.N., and Thorstensson, A. (1995). Influence of gastrocnemius muscle length on triceps surae torque development and electromyographic activity in man. Exp Brain Res 105, 283–290.


DeFronzo, R.A., and Abdul-Ghani, M. (2011). Assessment and treatment of cardiovascular risk in prediabetes: Impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose. Am J Cardiol 108, 3B-24B.


Dela, F., Ingersen, A., Andersen, N.B., Nielsen, M.B., Petersen, H.H.H., Hansen, C.N., Larsen, S., Wojtaszewski, J., and Helge, J.W. (2019). Effects of one-legged high-intensity interval training on insulin-mediated skeletal muscle glucose homeostasis in patients with type 2 diabetes. Acta Physiol 226, e13245.

Deshmukh, A.S., Steenberg, D.E., Hostrup, M., Birk, J.B., Larsen, J.K., Santos, A., Kjøbsted, R., Hingst, J.R., Schéele, C.C., Murgia, M., et al. (2021). Deep muscle-proteomic analysis of freeze-dried human muscle biopsies reveals fiber type-specific adaptations to exercise training. Nat Commun 12.


Devlin, J.T., Barlow, J., and Horton, E.S. (1989). Whole body and regional fuel metabolism during early postexercise recovery. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 256, E167-72.


Dunstan, D.W., Dogra, S., Carter, S.E., and Owen, N. (2021). Sit less and move more for cardiovascular health: emerging insights and opportunities. Nat Rev Cardiol 18, 637–648.


Eijsvogels, T.M.H., Fernandez, A.B., and Thompson, P.D. (2016). Are there deleterious cardiac effects of acute and chronic endurance exercise? Physiol Rev 96, 99–125.


Festa, A., D’Agostino, R., Hanley, A. J. G., Karter, A. J., Saad, M.F. (2004). Differences in insulin resistance in nondiabetic subjects with isolated impaired glucose tolerance or isolated impaired fasting glucose. Diabetes 53, 1549–1555.


Flockhart, M., Nilsson, L.C., Tais, S., Ekblom, B., Apró, W., and Larsen, F.J. (2021). Excessive exercise training causes mitochondrial functional impairment and decreases glucose tolerance in healthy volunteers. Cell Metab 33, 957-970.e6.


Förster, H., Haslbeck, M., and Mehnert, H. (1972). Metabolic studies following the oral ingestion of different doses of glucose. Diabetes 21, 1102–1108.


Gan, Z., Rumsey, J., Hazen, B.C., Lai, L., Leone, T.C., Vega, R.B., Xie, H., Conley, K.E., Auwerx, J., Smith, S.R., et al. (2013). Nuclear receptor/microRNA circuitry links muscle fiber type to energy metabolism. J Clin Invest 123, 2564–2575.


Gao, Y., Silvennoinen, M., Pesola, A.J., Kainulainen, H., Cronin, N.J., and Finni, T. (2017). Acute metabolic response, energy expenditure, and EMG activity in sitting and standing. Med Sci Sports Exerc 49, 1927–1934.


Gaster, M., Staehr, P., Beck-Nielsen, H., Schrøder, H.D., and Handberg, A. (2001). GLUT4 is reduced in slow muscle fibers of type 2 diabetic patients: Is insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes a slow, type 1 fiber disease? Diabetes 50, 1324–1329.


Gollnick, P.D., Piehl, K., Saltin, B. (1974). Selective glycogen depletion pattern in human muscle fibres after exercise of varying intensity and at varying pedalling rate. J Physiol 241, 45–57.


Gollnick, P.D., Sjödin, B., Karlsson, J., Jansson, E., and Saltin, B. (1974). Human soleus muscle: a comparison of fiber composition and enzyme activities with other leg muscles. Pflügers Arch 348, 247–255.


Halseth, A.E., Bracy, D.P., and Wasserman, D.H. (1998). Limitations to exercise- and maximal insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake. J Appl Physiol 85, 2305–2313.


Hamilton, K.S., Cherrington, A.D., and Wasserman, D.H. (1996). Effect of prior exercise on the partitioning of an intestinal glucose load between splanchnic bed and skeletal muscle. J Clin Invest 98, 125–135.


Hamilton, M.T., Etienne, J., McClure, W.C., Pavey, B.S., and Holloway, A.K. (1998). Role of local contractile activity and muscle fiber type on LPL regulation during exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 275, E1016-22.

Hamilton, M.T., Hamilton, D.G., Zderic, T.W. (2004). Exercise physiology versus inactivity physiology: an essential concept for understanding lipoprotein lipase regulation. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 32, 161-6.

Hamilton, M.T., Hamilton, D.G., and Zderic, T.W. (2007). Role of low energy expenditure and sitting in obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Diabetes 56, 2655–2667.

Hamilton, M.T., Hamilton, D.G., and Zderic, T.W. (2014). Sedentary behavior as a mediator of type 2 diabetes. Med Sport Sci 60, 11–26.

Harrison, M., Moyna, N.M., Zderic, T.W., Ogorman, D.J., McCaffrey, N., Carson, B.P., and Hamilton, M.T. (2012). Lipoprotein particle distribution and skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase activity after acute exercise. Lipids Health Dis 11, 1–8.


Healy, G.N., Winkler, E.A.H., Owen, N., Anuradha, S., and Dunstan, D.W. (2015). Replacing sitting time with standing or stepping : associations with cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers. Eur Heart J 36, 2643–2649.


Helge, J.W., Stallknecht, B., Richter, E.A., Galbo, H., and Kiens, B. (2007). Muscle metabolism during graded quadriceps exercise in man. J Physiol 581, 1247–1258.


Henson, J., Edwardson, C.L., Celis-Morales, C.A., Davies, M.J., Dunstan, D.W., Esliger, D.W., Gill, J.M.R., Kazi, A., Khunti, K., King, J., et al. (2020). Predictors of the acute postprandial response to breaking up prolonged sitting. Med Sci Sports Exerc 52, 1385–1393.


Heymsfield, S.B., Smith, B., Chung, E.A., Watts, K.L., Gonzalez, M.C., Yang, S., Heo, M., Thomas, D.M., Turner, D., Bosy-Westphal, A., et al. (2022). Phenotypic differences between people varying in muscularity. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 13, 1100–1112.


Hickey, M.S., Carey, J.O., Azevedo, J.L., Houmard, J.A., Pories, W.J., Israel, R.G., and Dohm, G.L. (1995). Skeletal muscle fiber composition is related to adiposity and in vitro glucose transport rate in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 268.


Hodgson, J.A., Roy, R.R., Higuchi, N., Monti, R.J., Zhong, H., Grossman, E., and Edgerton, V.R. (2005). Does daily activity level determine muscle phenotype? J Exp Biol 208, 3761–3770.


Holmstrup, M, Fairchild, T, Keslacy, S, Weinstock, R, Kanaley, J. (2014). Multiple short bouts of exercise over 12-h period reduce glucose excursions more than an energy-matched single bout of exercise. Metabolism 63, 510–519.


Horowitz, J.F., Mora-Rodriguez, R., Byerley, L.O., and Coyle, E.F. (1999). Substrate metabolism when subjects are fed carbohydrate during exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol 276, E828-35.


Horton, T.J., Pagliassotti, M.J., Hobbs, K., and Hill, J.O. (1998). Fuel metabolism in men and women during and after long-duration exercise. J Appl Physiol 85, 1823–1832.


Ivy, J.L., Zderic, T.W., Fogt, D.L. (1999). Prevention and treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 27, 1–35.


James, D.E., Jenkins, A.B., and Kraegen, E.W. (1985). Heterogeneity of insulin action in individual muscles in vivo: Euglycemic clamp studies in rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 11, 567–574.


Jansen, L.T., Yang, N., Wong, J.M.W., Mehta, T., Allison, D.B., Ludwig, D.S., and Ebbeling, C.B. (2022). Prolonged glycemic adaptation following transition from a low- to high-carbohydrate diet : A randomized controlled feeding trial. Diabetes Care 45, 576–584.

Jensen, T.E., Leutert, R., Rasmussen, S.T., Mouatt, J.R., Christiansen, M.L.B., Jensen, B.R., and Richter, E.A. (2012). EMG-normalised kinase activation during exercise is higher in human gastrocnemius compared to soleus muscle. PLoS One 7, e31054.


Johnson, M.A., Polgar, J., Weightman, D., and Appleton, D. (1973). Data on fibre size in thirty-six human muscles. An autopsy study. J Neurol Sci 18, 111–129.


Kakehi, E., Kotani, K., Nakamura, T., Takeshima, T., Kajii, E. (2018). Non-diabetic glucose levels and cancer mortality: a literature review. Curr Diabetes Rev 14, 434–445.


Kawakami, Y., Ichinose, Y., and Fukunaga, T. (1998). Architectural and functional features of human triceps surae muscles during contraction. J Appl Physiol 85, 398–404.


Kelley, D., Mokan, M., and Veneman, T. (1994). Impaired postprandial glucose utilization in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 43, 1549–1557.

Kim, J., Wang, Z.M., Heymsfield, S.B., Baumgartner, R.N., and Gallagher, D. (2002). Total-body skeletal muscle mass: Estimation by a new dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 378–383.


King, D.S., Baldus, P.J., Sharp, R.L., Kesl, L.D., Feltmeyer, T.L., and Riddle, M.S. (1995). Time course for exercise-induced alterations in insulin action and glucose tolerance in middle-aged people. J Appl Physiol 78, 17–22.


Knowler, W.C., Barrett-Connor, E., Fowler, S.E., Hamman, R.F., Lachin, J.M., Walker, E.A., and Nathan, D.M. (2002). Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 346, 393–403.


Knudsen, S.H., Karstoft, K., Pedersen, B.K., Van Hall, G., and Solomon, T.P.J. (2014). The immediate effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise on oral glucose tolerance across the glucose tolerance continuum. Physiol Rep 2, 1–13.

-1 hour of 50% VO2max exercise immediately preceding an OGTT increases the rate of glucose appearance of both endogenous (in first 10-30 min of OGTT) and exogenous glucose (starting at 40-50 min of OGTT) in those with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetes. The Rd and the MCR (Rd/glucose concentration) during the OGTT were all elevated by the preceding exercise. However, postprandial glucose concentration was not improved by the exercise in the IGT and those with type 2 diabetes and was worsened in those with normal glucose tolerance.

Kolk, S., Klawer, E.M.E., Schepers, J., Weerdesteyn, V., Visser, E.P., and Verdonschot, N. (2015). Muscle activity during walking measured using 3D MRI segmentations and [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose in combination with positron emission tomography. Med Sci Sports Exerc 47, 1896–1905.


Larsen, R.N., Kingwell, B.A., Robinson, C., Hammond, L., Cerin, E., Shaw, J.E., Healy, G.N., Hamilton, M.T., Owen, N., and Dunstan, D.W. (2015). Breaking up of prolonged sitting over three days sustains, but does not enhance, lowering of postprandial plasma glucose and insulin in overweight and obese adults. Clin Sci 129, 117–127.

Laughlin, M.H. (2016). Physical activity-induced remodeling of vasculature in skeletal muscle: Role in treatment of type 2 diabetes. J Appl Physiol 120, 1–16.


Livesey, G., Wilson, P.D., Dainty, J.R., Brown, J.C. Faulks, R.M., Roe, M.A., Newman, T.A., Eagles, J., Mellon, F.A, Greenwood, R.H. (1998). Simultaneous time-varying systemic appearance of oral and hepatic glucose in adults monitored with stable isotopes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 275, E717–E728.


Loh, R., Stamatakis, E., Folkerts, D., Allgrove, J.E., and Moir, H.J. (2020). Effects of interrupting prolonged sitting with physical activity breaks on blood glucose, insulin and triacylglycerol measures: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sport Med 50, 295–330.


Loh, R.K.C., Formosa, M.F., La, A., Reutens, A.T., Kingwell, B.A., and Carey, A.L. (2019). Acute metabolic and cardiovascular effects of mirabegron in healthy individuals. Diabetes Obes Metab 21, 276–284.


Mackie, B.G., Dudley, G.A., Kaciuba-Uscilko, H., and Terjung, R.L. (1980). Uptake of chylomicron triglycerides by contracting skeletal muscle in rats. J Appl Physiol 49, 851–855.


Maehlum, S., Felig, P., Wahren, J. (1978). Splanchnic glucose and muscle glycogen metabolism after glucose feeding during postexercise recovery. Am J Physiol 235, E255-60.


Magkos, F., Fraterrigo, G., Yoshino, J., Luecking, C., Kirbach, K., Kelly, S.C., De Las Fuentes, L., He, S., Okunade, A.L., Patterson, B.W., et al. (2016). Effects of moderate and subsequent progressive weight loss on metabolic function and adipose tissue biology in humans with obesity. Cell Metab 23, 591–601.

-Most importantly, this study demonstrates the difficulty in improving postprandial glucose tolerance even with a weight loss that improved insulin sensitivity of muscle and liver during a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp after 2.5 hours. Table 4 shows that progressive weight loss of 5, 11, and 16% by a low calorie diet did not significantly change OGTT glucose AUC, nor 2 hr glucose concentration in obese participants who had evidence of insulin-resistant glucose metabolism. Furthermore, insulin AUC was not significantly lowered by 5 or 11% weight loss but was lowered by 23% (P<0.05) with 16% weight loss. Table 3 shows that there was not a significant interaction between the change in the glucose AUC, 2 hr glucose, insulin AUC in the weight maintenance group and the 5% weight loss group. All three levels of weight loss significantly improved hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp determined peripheral and hepatic insulin action assessed at 2.5 to 3 hrs of steady insulin infusion.

Matthews, C.E., Keadle, S.K., Moore, S.C., Schoeller, D.S., Carroll, R.J., Troiano, R.P., and Sampson, J.N. (2018). Measurement of active and sedentary behavior in context of large epidemiologic studies. Med Sci Sports Exerc 50, 266–276.


McDonough, P., Behnke, B.J., Padilla, D.J., Musch, T.I., and Poole, D.C. (2005). Control of microvascular oxygen pressures in rat muscles comprised of different fibre types. J Physiol 563, 903–913.


McNeill, B.T., Morton, N.M., and Stimson, R.H. (2020). Substrate utilization by brown adipose tissue: what’s hot and what’s not? Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 11, 1–8.


Menke, A., Casagrande, S., Geiss, L., and Cowie, C.C. (2015). Prevalence of and trends in diabetes among adults in the United States, 1988-2012. JAMA 314, 1021–1029.


Monster, A.W., Chan, H., O’Connor, D. (1978). Activity patterns of human skeletal muscles : Relation to muscle fiber type composition. Science (80- ) 200, 314–317.


Mossberg, K.A., Mommessin, J.I., Taegtmeyer, H. (1993). Skeletal muscle glucose uptake during short-term contractile activity in vivo: effect of prior contractions. Metabolism 42, 1609–1616.


Murgia, M., Nogara, L., Baraldo, M., Reggiani, C., Mann, M., and Schiaffino, S. (2021). Protein profile of fiber types in human skeletal muscle: a single-fiber proteomics study. Skelet Muscle 11, 1–19.


Newton, R.L., Han, H., Zderic, T.W., and Hamilton, M.T. (2013). The energy expenditure of sedentary behavior: a whole room calorimeter study. PLoS One 8, e63171.

Niess, F., Fiedler, G.B., Schmid, A.I., Laistler, E., Frass-Kriegl, R., Wolzt, M., Moser, E., and Meyerspeer, M. (2018). Dynamic multivoxel-localized 31P MRS during plantar flexion exercise with variable knee angle. NMR Biomed 31, e3905.


Ohara, T., Doi, Y., Ninomiya, T., Hirakawa, Y., Hata, J., Iwaki, T., Kanba, S., Kiyohara, Y. (2011). Glucose tolerance status and risk of dementia in the community: the Hisayama study. Neurology 77, 1126–1134.


Papanas, N., Vinik, A.I., and Ziegler, D. (2011). Neuropathy in prediabetes: Does the clock start ticking early? Nat Rev Endocrinol 7, 682–690.


Peachey, M.M., Richardson, J., V Tang, A., Dal-Bello Haas, V., and Gravesande, J. (2020). Environmental, behavioural and multicomponent interventions to reduce adults’ sitting time: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med 54, 315–325.


Petersen, H.A., Fueger, P.T., Bracy, D.P., Wasserman, D.H., and Halseth, A.E. (2003). Fiber type-specific determinants of Vmax for insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake in vivo. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 284, E541-548.


Pettit-Mee, R.J., Ready, S.T., Padilla, J., and Kanaley, J.A. (2021). Leg fidgeting during prolonged sitting improves postprandial glycemic control in people with obesity. Obesity 29, 1146–1154.


Price, T.B., Kamen, G., Damon, B.M., Knight, C.A., Applegate, B., Gore, J.C., Eward, K., and Signorile, J.F. (2003). Comparison of MRI with EMG to study muscle activity associated with dynamic plantar flexion. Magn Reson Imaging 21, 853–861.


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Richter, E.A. Ruderman, N.B. Gavras, H., Belur, E.R., Galbo, H. (1982). Muscle glycogenolysis during exercise: dual control by epinephrine and contractions. Am J Physiol 242, E25-32.


Richter, E.A., Kiens, B., Saltin, B., Christensen, N.J., and Savard, G. (1988). Skeletal muscle glucose uptake during dynamic exercise in humans: Role of muscle mass. Am J Physiol - Endocrinol Metab 254.


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Rose, A.J., Howlett, K., King, D.S., and Hargreaves, M. (2001). Effect of prior exercise on glucose metabolism in trained men. Am J Physiol - Endocrinol Metab 281, 766–771.

-Postprandial glucose was elevated if starting the OGTT 30 min after 55 minutes of 71% VO2max exercise compared to a preceding resting condition. The preceding exercise increased glucose iAUC by 71% due at least in part to an elevated rate of appearance of glucose from both endogenous (significant at 15-30 min of the OGTT) and exogenous ingested glucose. While glucose rate of disappearance was elevated during the OGTT post exercise, when divided by the prevailing glucose concentrations (i.e., MCR) there were no differences between the two conditions nor was there a difference in insulin concentrations.

Ross, R., Dagnone, D., Jones, P.J.H., Smith, H., Paddags, A., Hudson, R., and Janssen, I. (2000). Reduction in obesity and related comorbid conditions after diet-induced weight loss or exercise-induced weight loss in men: A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 133, 92–103.

-Exercise training alone and dietary induced weight loss alone did not significantly improve OGTT glucose AUC. Combination of exercise training with weight loss significantly lowered OGTT glucose AUC by 10%.

Ross, R., Stotz, P.J., and Lam, M. (2015). Effects of exercise amount and intensity on abdominal obesity and glucose tolerance in obese adults: A randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 162, 325–334.

-OGTT glucose AUC was not significantly improved by 24 weeks of three different doses of exercise training in 3 groups of people. 2 hr glucose was only improved (-13 mg/dL) by high weekly volume of vigorous intensity exercise and not by low or a high volume of moderate intensity exercise compared to a control group. All three doses of exercise training significantly lowered the waist circumference by 3.9 and 4.6 cm.

Sawilowsky, S.S. (2009). New effect size rules of thumb. J Mod Appl Stat Methods 8, 597–599.


Slentz, C.A., Bateman, L.A., Willis, L.H., Granville, E.O., Piner, L.W., Samsa, G.P., Setji, T.L., Muehlbauer, M.J., Huffman, K.M., Bales, C.W., et al. (2016). Effects of exercise training alone vs a combined exercise and nutritional lifestyle intervention on glucose homeostasis in prediabetic individuals: a randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia 59, 2088–2098.

-The consensus panel recommended amount and high amount of moderate intensity exercise training significantly reduced OGTT glucose iAUC by 16 and 20% and high amount of vigorous exercise did not improve glucose iAUC (these three doses did not impact fasting glucose). Recommended amount of moderate intensity exercise training combined with dietary restriction and a 7% weight loss significantly reduced glucose iAUC by 17%. 2 hr glucose was not significantly impacted by recommended amount of either moderate or vigorous exercise training, but was lowered by 13 mg/dL by a high amount of moderate exercise training and by 23 mg/dL from combined 7% weight loss plus the recommended amount of moderate intensity exercise training.

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Steenberg, D.E., Hingst, J.R., Birk, J.B., Thorup, A., Kristensen, J.M., Sjøberg, K.A., Kiens, B., Richter, E.A., and Wojtaszewski, J.F.P. (2020). A single bout of one-legged exercise to local exhaustion decreases insulin action in nonexercised muscle leading to decreased whole-body insulin action. Diabetes 69, 578–590.


Succurro, E., Marini, M.A., Arturi, F., Grembiale, A., Lugarà, M., Andreozzi, F., Sciacqua, A., Lauro, R., Hribal, M.L., Perticone, F., et al. (2009). Elevated one-hour post-load plasma glucose levels identifies subjects with normal glucose tolerance but early carotid atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 207, 245–249.


Sylow, L., Kleinert, M., Richter, E.A., and Jensen, T.E. (2017). Exercise-stimulated glucose uptake-regulation and implications for glycaemic control. Nat Rev Endocrinol 13, 133–148.

Terry, E.E., Zhang, X., Hoffmann, C., Hughes, L.D., Lewis, S.A., Li, J., Wallace, M.J., Riley, L.A., Douglas, C.M., Gutierrez-Monreal, M.A., et al. (2018). Transcriptional profiling reveals extraordinary diversity among skeletal muscle tissues. Elife 7, 1–27.


Thorp, A.A., Kingwell, B.A., Sethi, P., Hammond, L., Owen, N., and Dunstan, D.W. (2014). Alternating bouts of sitting and standing attenuate postprandial glucose responses. Med Sci Sports Exerc 46, 2053–2061.


Thorsen, I.K., Johansen, M.Y., Pilmark, N.S., Jespersen, N.Z., Brinkløv, C.F., Benatti, F.B., Dunstan, D.W., Karstoft, K., Pedersen, B.K., and Ried-Larsen, M. (2019). The effect of frequency of activity interruptions in prolonged sitting on postprandial glucose metabolism: A randomized crossover trial. Metabolism 96, 1–7.

van der Berg, J.D., Stehouwer, C.D.A., Bosma, H., van der Velde, J.H.P.M., Willems, P.J.B., Savelberg, H.H.C.M., Schram, M.T., Sep, S.J.S., van der Kallen, C.J.H., Henry, R.M.A., et al. (2016). Associations of total amount and patterns of sedentary behaviour with type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome: The Maastricht Study. Diabetologia 59, 709–718.


Ward, S.R., Eng, C.M., Smallwood, L.H., and Lieber, R.L. (2009). Are current measurements of lower extremity muscle architecture accurate? Clin Orthop Relat Res 467, 1074–1082.


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